Falls are the world’s second major reason of natural or unintentional injury fatalities, according to the World Health Organization, and 37.3 million falls are not lucky enough to get medical attention held per year. Studying falls needs knowledge of the typical movement of walkers as how they walk the mechanics of the communication between a person’s foot and the ground they step on, and the kinds of barriers that usually render moving platforms dangerous. Slip and fall or fall inquiries are therefore interdisciplinary, incorporating expertise from civil engineering, kinesiology, physics, biomechanics, and mechanical engineering.
The Typical Gait Cycle
In current homo sapiens, biomechanists from medical, kinesiology and aerospace fields have torn down the typical gait process, which has been almost the same for at best 100,000 years. The process starts and finishes with the heel of one foot hitting the floor and can be split into two stages: the stage of position during which the foot is in touch with the floor; and the stage of spin during which the foot is raised from the floor and carried through the wind. Forensic engineers can very well investigate for any kind of fall.
A more comprehensive gait process model comprises of seven phases, shown in the chart below.
The phases of the Gait Cycle are:
- Heelstrike– This is where the foot made the first touch with the floor through the heel.
- Flatfoot – The whole foot sole is now in touch with the floor, and the center of mass of the body is moving forward towards the planting foot.
- Midstance – The center of mass of the body moves on the floor over the foot as the other foot lifts in the air.
- Push off – This is when the toes lift off, starting to lift the heel of the rooted foot.
- Acceleration – The foot starts to lift and achieve speed in the air.
- Mid swing – This is where the foot is completely off the floor and shifts towards the center of gravity of the body.
- Deceleration – The foot slowed down and lift down to the floor, the first heel.
As the trips and slips are the results of distinct processes, they appear to happen at distinct stages in the gait process.
Fall and Slips
A slip happens when the friction between the foot and the floor is inadequate to finish the gait process usually, and the footfalls suddenly on slippery ground. During the heel strike phase of the gait process, slips happen most often. During a slip, the heel moves forward related to the rest of the body, resulting in the centre of mass to be shifted rearward, beginning a backward fall.
Falls and Trips
A trip happens when the foot in the moving ground comes into touch with a discontinuity or changes in altitude. Falls and trip occur most often during the gait cycle midswing stage. As the foot moves forward, it hits a discontinuity in the moving ground, and the body performs a forward rotation, leading in the center of mass is moved forward from the ordinary upright situation, beginning to collapse forward.